IMPACT OF SALT REDUCTION ON BREAD ON SENSORY PREFERENCE AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

Authors

  • Célia Monteiro
  • Zita Martins
  • Olívia Pinho
  • Carla Silva Gonçalves UTAD

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15414/jmbfs.2701

Keywords:

bread, salt, sensory analysis, image analysis, external preference mapping

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of salt reduction on bread physicochemical parameters and sensory analysis. The relationship between sensory attributes and preference was assessed using external preference mapping (PREFMAP). Moreover, sensory attributes relationship with physicochemical parameters was evaluated.

Methodology

Four Portuguese bread formulations were tested: “D’água”, “Carcaça”, “Mistura”, and “Regueifa”, produced with different salt concentrations (0.0%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.1%, 1.3%, and 1.4% of salt per wheat flour). Bread physicochemical characteristics evaluated included weight, volume, moisture, salt content, and crumb colour and structure. Sodium was determined by flame photometry method, while crumb colour and structure by digital image analysis. Sensory analysis was carried out with 8 trained assessors and consumer test with 80 participants. Statistical models for sensory preference evaluation were developed using PREFMAP. Statistical comparison was performed using as control bread with 1.4% of salt (legal value allowed).

Findings

Overall, salt reduction had significant impact on moisture, salt content and colour parameters, but limited influence on crumb morphology. Salt reduction had a significant negative impact on overall assessment, taste liking and overall linking attributes. The lowest salt concentrations with best consumer acceptance were: 0.8% (“D’Água” and “Carcaça”), 1.0% (“Mistura”), and 1.1% (“Regueifa”). These results suggest that salt reduction in these breads is possible without major impact on bread characteristics and without compromising consumers’ acceptance.

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Published

2021-08-01

How to Cite

Monteiro, C., Martins, Z., Pinho, O., & Gonçalves, C. S. (2021). IMPACT OF SALT REDUCTION ON BREAD ON SENSORY PREFERENCE AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 11(1), e2701. https://doi.org/10.15414/jmbfs.2701

Issue

Section

Miscellaneous
Received 2020-02-27
Accepted 2021-02-04
Online Published 2021-08-01