CAMPYLOBACTER AS A MAJOR FOODBORNE PATHOGEN: A REVIEW OF ITS CHARACTERISTICS, PATHOGENESIS, ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND CONTROL
Keywords:Campylobacter, Campylobacter jejuni, foodborne, campylobacteriosis, poultry, phytochemicals, virulence
Campylobacter, mainly Campylobacter jejuni is viewed as one of the most well-known reasons of foodborne bacterial diarrheal sickness in people around the globe. The genus Campylobacter contains 39 species (spp.) and 16 sub spp. Campylobacter is microaerophilic, Gram negative, spiral-shaped rod with characteristic cork screw motility. It is colonizing the digestive system of numerous wild and household animals and birds, particularly chickens. Intestinal colonization brings about transporter/carrier healthy animals. Consequently, the utilization of contaminated meat, especially chicken meat is the primary source of campylobacteriosis in humans and chickens are responsible for an expected 80% of human campylobacter infection. Interestingly, in contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this review targets the taxonomy, biological characteristics, identification and habitat of Campylobacter spp. Moreover, it discusses the pathogenesis, resistance to antimicrobial agents and public health significance of Campylobacter spp. Finally, it focuses on the phytochemicals as intervention strategies used to reduce Campylobacter spp.in poultry production.
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