INVESTIGATION OF HISTAMINE LEVELS IN PASTEURIZED, HIGH HEAT-TREATED MILK AND TYPES OF CHEESE
Keywords:Cheese, ELISA, Histamine, Milk
Histamine is the most common and toxic biogenic amine in foods. The presence of histamine in some foods is considered as an indicator of microbiological quality and hygiene. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the amount of histamine in some milk and cheese consumed in Ankara. A total of 116 samples of 20 different pasteurized milk, 20 high heat-treated milk and 76 cheese samples (tulum cheese, white cheese, fresh kashar cheese, and labne cheese) were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. As a result, In 29 (72.5%) of 40 milk samples, the presence of histamine was detected in concentrations ranging between 0.10 and 0.32 mg/L. The mean levels (±S.E) of histamine of milk samples were found to be 0.18±0.01 mg/L. In 58 (76.3 %) of 76 cheese samples, the presence of histamine was detected in concentrations ranging between 2.52 and 189.79 mg/kg. Regarding the tulum cheese, white cheese, fresh kashar cheese, and labne cheese samples, mean levels (±SE) of histamine in were found to be 56.60±12.56 mg/kg; 3.68±0.29 mg/kg; 4.88±0.35 mg/kg and 4.48±0.39 mg/kg, respectively. The mean levels of histamine of cheeses were higher than mean levels of histamine of milk. The differences between mean levels of histamine in milk samples and the mean levels of histamine in cheese samples were statistically significant (P<0.001). At present, there are no established limits on Turkish Food Codex for histamine concentrations in milk and cheeses.
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