PRE-TREATMENT OF VEGETABLES AND FORMULA DEVELOPMENT OF CALCIUM-FORTIFIED VEGETABLE CRISPY WAFFLES WITH RICEBERRY USING A MIXTURE DESIGN
Keywords:mixture design, calcium, riceberry, vegetable crisps, thai basil, Chinese kale, False pak choi
Crispy waffles are popular snacks typically containing wheat flour, sugar, and oil. Excessive consumption may be unhealthy. This study aimed to produce healthier crispy waffles using vegetables, specifically Chinese kale (CK), False Pak Choi (FPC), and Thai basil (TB), as sources of calcium. These vegetables underwent three pre-treatments: blanching, steaming, and stir-frying. The study then focused on the formulation of calcium-fortified crispy vegetable waffles with riceberry (CVWR) using a mixture design experiment. Calcium content in TB, FPC, and CK was found to be 313.96, 309.88, and 246.15 mg/100g, respectively. Pre-treatment results revealed that steaming resulted in the least reduction of calcium content, while stir-frying caused the least reduction of total chlorophyll and total polyphenol contents. The proportions of the crispy waffles components were 0-30%CK, 0-30% FPC, 0-30%TB, and 70% riceberry. The physical quality of CVWR, considering crispness and calcium content, was determined using a linear regression equation. The analysis showed that CVWR with TB as the primary component had the highest calcium content and crispness, followed by FPC and CK, respectively. In terms of sensory characteristics, FPC had the highest fracture coefficient, followed by TB and CK, respectively. The optimal formulation, determined by overlapping diagrams, consisted of 14.88% FPC, 13.11% TB, 2.01% CK, and 70% riceberry. The resulting CVWR contained 286.19 mg/100g calcium and was a source of total dietary fiber and anthocyanin. Consequently, CVWR offers a healthier, high-nutritional-value snack option suitable for health-conscious consumers.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Suwanna Pichaiyongvongdee, Boonyakrit Rattanapun, Piyawon Youdee, Nujira Rasamipaiboon, Tanikan Nubwande
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